Cabozantinib (C) inhibits tyrosine kinases involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune regulation, including MET, VEGFR, and TAM kinases (Tyro3, AXL, MER), and may promote an immune-permissive tumor environment, resulting in enhanced response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. C has shown preliminary clinical activity and tolerability in combination with the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab (N) and as part of a triplet combination with N and the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab (I) in patients (pts) with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) (Nadal et al. ASCO 2018). C is approved for pts with aRCC, and N+I is approved as a combination therapy in pts with previously untreated aRCC of intermediate or poor risk. We present the study design of a phase 3 trial of C+N+I vs N+I in previously untreated pts with aRCC of IMDC intermediate or poor risk (NCT03937219).
This randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 3 study evaluates the efficacy and safety of C+N+I vs N+I in previously untreated pts with IMDC intermediate or poor risk aRCC. Eligible pts are randomized 1:1 to receive C+N+I or N+I in combination with placebo, stratified by IMDC prognostic score and geographic region. Pts receive C (40 mg oral QD) + N (3 mg/kg IV Q3W) x 4 doses + I (1 mg/kg IV Q3W) x 4 doses, followed by C (40 mg oral QD) + N (480 mg IV flat dose Q4W). Control pts receive C-matched placebo and the same treatment regimen for N+I as the experimental arm. N will be administered for a maximum of 2 years. Eligibility criteria include histologically confirmed metastatic or aRCC with a clear cell component, intermediate or poor risk RCC per IMDC criteria, measurable disease per RECIST 1.1, KPS ≥70%, adequate organ and marrow function and age ≥18 years. Exclusion criteria include prior systemic therapy for aRCC and uncontrolled significant illnesses. The primary endpoint is PFS per RECIST 1.1 by BICR; the secondary endpoint is OS. Additional endpoints include ORR, safety, correlation of biomarkers with outcomes, and pharmacokinetics of C in combination with N+I. The first patient was enrolled in June 2019 and enrollment is ongoing. Clinical trial information: NCT03937219.